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Introduction to Country Context

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Uganda has an area of 240 038 km2, of which 197 323 km2 is covered by land.

The Uganda Bureau of Statistics estimates the population in 2009 at 30.7 million and by the end of the financial year 2015 Uganda’s population will be approximately 37.9 million, increasing the average population density from 133 to 156 persons per square kilometre.[1][2]

A total of 48.5% of the population is male, while 51.5% is female; 88% of the population resides in rural areas.

The population growth rate is estimated at 3.2% per annum; this translates into annual increments of approximately 1 million people.

Traditional guard in Uganda

It is estimated that 49% of Uganda’s population comprises persons under the age of 15 years. Over the next 5 years the Ugandan population will remain a young population, with 18.5% of the total population being aged under 5 years. The population structure will change, with the elderly (65 years +) slowly increasing from about 2.1% of the total population in 2010 to 2.3% of the total population in 2015.

There will be an increase in the number of females in reproductive years from 7 million in 2009 to 8.3 million in 2014 and this will put a strain on all reproductive health services.[3]

The poverty head count in the country has progressively declined from 38% in 2002–2003 to 31% in 2005–2006.[4] It is estimated that 8.4 million people in the country are poor, with about 7 million trapped in chronic poverty.

Uganda has an equatorial climate. Almost 80% of the country lies at an average altitude of approximately 1000 m (range 800–1500 m) above sea level. Most of the country receives between 1015 mm and 1525 mm of rainfall per annum. Annual temperatures range from a minimum of 10°C–22.4°C to a maximum of 22.5°C–32.5°C.

Poverty is still widespread in the country, especially in rural areas.

Administratively, Uganda is divided into districts, which are further subdivided into lower administrative units namely counties, subcounties and parishes.


  1. Fiscal space for health in Uganda (pdf 898.08kb). Washington DC, World Bank, 2010
  2. Statistical abstracts (pdf 3.47Mb). Kampala, Government of Uganda, Uganda Bureau of Statistics, 2010
  3. Health Sector Strategic Investment Plan III 2010/11–2014/15 (pdf 583.67kb). Kampala, Government of Uganda, Ministry of Health, 2010
  4. Uganda demographic health survey (pdf 4.59Mb). Kampala, Government of Uganda, Uganda Bureau of Statistics and Calverton, Maryland, Macro International Inc, 2006