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Health financing system

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A good health financing system raises adequate funds for health, in ways that ensure people can use needed services and are protected from financial catastrophe or impoverishment associated with having to pay for them.[1] Health financing systems that achieve universal coverage in this way also encourage the provision and use of an effective and efficient mix of personal and non-personal services.

Three interrelated functions are involved in order to achieve this:

  • the collection of revenues from households, companies or external agencies;
  • the pooling of prepaid revenues in ways that allow risks to be shared – including decisions on benefit coverage and entitlement; and purchasing;
  • the process by which interventions are selected and services are paid for or providers are paid.

The interaction between all three functions determines the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health financing systems.

Health system inputs: from financial resources to health interventions

Like all aspects of health system strengthening, changes in health financing must be tailored to the history, institutions and traditions of each country. Most systems involve a mix of public and private financing and public and private provision, and there is no one template for action. However, important principles to guide any country’s approach to financing include:

  • raising additional funds where health needs are high, revenues insufficient and where accountability mechanisms can ensure transparent and effective use of resources;
  • reducing reliance on out-of-pocket payments where they are high, by moving towards prepayment systems involving pooling of financial risks across population groups (taxation and the various forms of health insurance are all forms of prepayment);
  • taking additional steps, where needed, to improve social protection by ensuring the poor and other vulnerable groups have access to needed services, and that paying for care does not result in financial catastrophe;
  • improving efficiency of resource use by focusing on the appropriate mix of activities and interventions to fund and inputs to purchase;
  • aligning provider payment methods with organizational arrangements for service providers and other incentives for efficient service provision and use, including contracting;
  • strengthening financial and other relationships with the private sector and addressing fragmentation of financing arrangements for different types of services;
  • promoting transparency and accountability in health financing systems;
  • improving generation of information on the health financing system and its policy use.


This section on Health financing system is structured as follows:

Contents

Analytical summary

The Government of Uganda has steadily increased its budget allocation of funds to the health sector. However, it continues to allocate less than 10% of its budget to health care, which is less than the 15% agreed in the Abuja Declaration by heads of African states.

The current funding of US$ 27 per capita per annum expenditure on health care is far below the US$ 44 per capita recommended. Most donor aid is not harmonized and aligned to the sector plan and managed off-budget. Private out-of-pocket expenditure on health is still high.

Uganda does not have a pooling mechanism but this is being addressed through proposed national health insurance schemes.


Organization of health financing

Health expenditures patterns, trends and funding flows

Funding sources

Pooling of funds

Institutional arrangements and purchaser provider relations

Payment mechanisms

Priorities and ways forward

Others

Endnotes: References, sources, methods, abbreviations, etc.

  1. Everybody’s business. Strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes. WHO’s framework for action (pdf 843.33kb). Geneva, World Health Organization, 2007