Leadership and governance
The leadership and governance of health systems, also called stewardship, is arguably the most complex but critical building block of any health system. It is about the role of the government in health and its relation to other actors whose activities impact on health. This involves overseeing and guiding the whole health system, private as well as public, in order to protect the public interest.
It requires both political and technical action, because it involves reconciling competing demands for limited resources in changing circumstances, for example with rising expectations, more pluralistic societies, decentralization or a growing private sector. There is increased attention to corruption and calls for a more human rights based approach to health. There is no blueprint for effective health leadership and governance. While ultimately it is the responsibility of government, this does not mean all leadership and governance functions have to be carried out by central ministries of health.
Experience suggests that there are some key functions common to all health systems, irrespective of how these are organized:
- Policy guidance: formulating sector strategies and also specific technical policies; defining goals, directions and spending priorities across services; identifying the roles of public, private and voluntary actors and the role of civil society.
- Intelligence and oversight: ensuring generation, analysis and use of intelligence on trends and differentials in inputs, service access, coverage, safety; on responsiveness, financial protection and health outcomes, especially for vulnerable groups; on the effects of policies and reforms; on the political environment and opportunities for action; and on policy options.
- Collaboration and coalition building: across sectors in government and with actors outside government, including civil society, to influence action on key determinants of health and access to health services; to generate support for public policies and to keep the different parts connected – so called "joined up government".
- Regulation: designing regulations and incentives and ensuring they are fairly enforced.
- System design: ensuring a fit between strategy and structure and reducing duplication and fragmentation.
- Accountability: ensuring all health system actors are held publicly accountable. Transparency is required to achieve real accountability.
An increasing range of instruments and institutions exists to carry out the functions required for effective leadership and governance. Instruments include:
- sector policies and medium-term expenditure frameworks
- standardized benefit packages
- resource allocation formulae
- performance-based contracts
- patients' charters
- explicit government commitments to non-discrimination and public participation
- public fee schedules.
Institutions involved may include:
- other ministries, parliaments and their committees
- other levels of government
- independent statutory bodies such as professional councils, inspectorates and audit commissions
- nongovernment organization "watch dogs" and a free media.
This section of the health system profile is structured as follows:
- 3.2.1 Analytical summary
- 3.2.2 Context and background of the health system
- 3.2.3 Ministry of health and other institutions involved in health and social services
- 184.108.40.206 Organizational chart of the ministry of health
- 220.127.116.11 Organization and functions of the ministry of health
- 18.104.22.168 Decentralization of the system
- 22.214.171.124 Influence of the ministry of health in the overall national policy framework
- 126.96.36.199 Other institutions involved in provision of health and social services
- 3.2.4 Policy-making and health planning
- 188.8.131.52 Utilization of health information
- 184.108.40.206 Health activity planning
- 220.127.116.11 Policy dialogue and decision-making process
- 3.2.5 Regulation, monitoring and evaluation
- 18.104.22.168 Regulation – legislation
- 22.214.171.124 International health regulation
- 126.96.36.199 Monitoring and evaluation
- 3.2.6 Priorities and ways forward
- 3.2.7 Others