The Health System
Health systems are defined as comprising all the organizations, institutions and resources that are devoted to producing health actions. A health action is defined as any effort, whether in personal health care, public health services or through intersectoral initiatives, whose primary purpose is to improve health. But while improving health is clearly the main objective of a health system, it is not the only one.
The objective of good health itself is really twofold: the best attainable average level – goodness – and the smallest feasible differences among individuals and groups – fairness. Goodness means a health system responding well to what people expect of it; fairness means it responds equally well to everyone, without discrimination.
National health systems have three overall goals:
- good health
- responsiveness to the expectations of the population
- fairness of financial contribution.
WHO describes health systems as having six building blocks:
- service delivery
- health workforce
- medical products, vaccines and technologies
- leadership and governance (stewardship).
The 2008 Ouagadougou Declaration on Primary Health Care and Health Systems in Africa focuses on nine major priority areas, namely:
- leadership and governance for health
- health services delivery
- human resources for health
- health financing
- health information systems
- health technologies
- community ownership and participation
- partnerships for health development
- research for health.
This section of the analytical profile is structured along the lines of the WHO framework and the priorities described by the 2008 Ouagadougou Declaration:
- 3 The Health System
- 3.1 Health system outcomes
- 3.2 Leadership and governance
- 3.3 Community ownership and participation
- 3.4 Partnerships for health development
- 3.5 Health information, research, evidence and knowledge
- 3.6 Health financing system
- 3.7 Service delivery
- 3.8 Health workforce
- 3.9 Medical products, vaccines, infrastructures and equipment
- 3.10 General country health policies
- 3.11 Universal coverage